Complete 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences were determined for 8 Eimeria species of chickens and for Eimeria bovis of cattle. Sequences were aligned with each other and with sequences from 2 Sarcocystis spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, and 4 Cryptosporidium spp. Aligned sequences were analyzed by maximum parsimony to infer evolutionary relationships among the avian Eimeria species. Eimecia bovis was found to be the sister taxon to the 8 Eimeria species infecting chickens. Within the avian Eimeria species, E. necatrix and E. tenella were sister taxa: this clade attached basally to the other chicken coccidia. The remaining Eimeria spp. formed 3 clades that correlated with similarities based on oocyst size and shape. Eimeria mitis and Eimeria mivati (small, near spherical oocysts) formed the next most basal clade followed by a clade comprising Eimeria praecox. Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria brumetti (large, oval oocysts), which was the sister group to Eimeria acervulina (small, oval oocysts). The 4 clades of avian Eimeria species were strongly supported in a bootstrap analysis. Basal rooting of E. necatrix and E. tenella between E. bovis and the remaining Eimeria species and the apparent absence of coccidia that infect the ceca of jungle fowl all suggest that E. necatrix and E. tenella may have arisen from a host switch, perhaps from the North American turkey, Meleagris gallopavo.
Article 2 When considering husbandry practices the following biological characteristics of the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus) presented hereafter should be borne in mind: a. The domestic fowl is descended from the red junglefowl of south-east Asia and has been domesticated for 6 000 to 8 000 years. During most of that time it has been kept for decorative or fighting purposes. During the last 1000 - 2000 years, it has been kept for meat and egg production and only in the last 40 to 50 years it has been bred intensively for production characteristics. This in combination with changes in husbandry practices has resulted in spectacular increases in meat and egg production: the wild junglefowl lays about 60 eggs per year whereas hybrids in the 90's may lay more than 300. Meat production in broiler strains has similarly increased, and the time taken to slaughter weight has decreased considerably. However, this intensive selection of production characteristics has not been sufficiently accompanied by a parallel selection of other characteristics which would enable the health and welfare of the birds to be protected under different farming conditions. Although there is variation between strains of domestic fowl, all retain certain biological characteristics of their wild ancestors. Junglefowl show complex patterns of courtship, nesting, laying, incubation, brooding behaviour and defence against predators.b. Domestic fowl are social animals which, when allowed to do so, form a cohesive social structure and communicate by means of calls, contacts and visual displays. The social structure is established by associative behaviour, social facilitation and agonistic behaviour (attack, escape, avoidance and submission) and in groups of up to about 25 birds, a ranking or "peck order" is established. In larger groups more complex interactions may occur, with the formation of sub-groups, but many individuals will be treated as conspecific strangers. The provision of a complex, enriched environment has been found to reduce the frequency of agonistic interactions in fowl populations. c. Domestic fowl have retained the typical feeding pattern of junglefowl, which consists of pecking and ground-scratching, followed by ingestion. Although the degree to which pecking and scratching behaviours have been retained varies among strains of hybrids, they are still present and if frustrated these behaviours may be re-directed towards injury to or even cannibalism of flock-mates. The beaks of domestic fowl are richly innervated. Beak trimming (sometimes mistakenly called de-beaking) can result in the formation of neuromas. Neuromas can cause severe and prolonged pain. d. Domestic fowl, if given the opportunity, will exhibit the same wide range of comfort and grooming activities as their junglefowl ancestors. These include preening, which involves the arrangement, cleansing and general maintenance of the health and structure of the feathers by the beak or feet; raising and ruffling the feathers; stretching the wings; and dust-bathing. The motivation to dust-bathe remains particularly strong, even in birds reared on wire floors, and is present in birds free of ectoparasites and in those from which the uropygial gland has been removed. Birds given no material in which to dust-bathe attempt to do so using feathers and it is likely that one cause of feather-pecking is a lack of material and conditions suitable for dust-bathing.e. Domestic fowl retain many anti-predator responses such as freezing, alarm-calling, sudden attempts to move rapidly away from danger, and vigorous struggling and vocalisation if caught. Such behavioural responses may be associated with, or replaced by, emergency and physiological responses.f. Domestic fowl have retained courtship behaviour, when both sexes are present in a flock, but many strains of hybrids show little incubation and brooding behaviour. However, all hens will show elements of normal nesting and laying behaviour: nest site examination, nest building, sitting, increased locomotion, the pre-laying call, oviposition movements, standing and cackling. The full repertoire is shown only when an adequate nest site, such as a nest box, is available, but if this is not available, the behaviours are shown in reduced form and abnormalities of behaviour, such as prolonged stereotyped pacing, can occur.STOCKMANSHIP AND INSPECTION
Article 8 1. Professional advice on health and welfare aspects should be sought when new accommodation for poultry is planned or when existing accommodation is modified. 2. New methods of husbandry, equipment or accommodation for poultry should be comprehensively tested from the point of view of health and welfare and, when tests are undertaken, shall not be put into commercial use unless found to be satisfactory. Article 9When new accommodation for poultry is planned a suitable site should be selected taking into consideration the risks from outside environmental factors such as noise, light, vibration and atmospheric pollution and from predators. Where appropriate, advantage should be taken of natural features to provide shelter from predators and from adverse weather conditions. Article 10 1. The design, construction and maintenance of enclosures, buildings and equipment for poultry shall be such that they: - allow the fulfilment of essential biological needs and the maintenance of good health;- facilitate management of the birds;- allow for easy maintenance of good conditions of hygiene and air quality;- provide shelter from predators and from adverse weather conditions; - limit the risk of disease, disorders manifested by behavioural changes, traumatic injuries to the birds, injuries caused by birds to each other and, as far as possible, contamination of the birds by droppings;- avoid sharp corners, projections and materials which may be harmful to the birds;- allow, without difficulty, a thorough inspection of all birds.Endeavours shall be made to provide poultry with adequate facilities to allow the expression of the different behaviours described under "Biological characteristics of the domestic fowl".2. Buildings in which birds are confined shall be constructed and maintained in such a way as to minimize any risk of fire. Materials should be fire resistant or treated with flame retardants; all appropriate measures shall be taken to allow for immediate action in order to protect animals, e.g. installing an alarm system and elaborating an evacuation plan for the animals. Electrical equipment and wiring shall be well installed and maintained. 3. Enclosures and buildings shall be designed and maintained in such a manner as to:- prevent the introduction of rodents, wild birds and insects; - allow for the prevention and treatment of infestations of internal and external parasites.4. Where poultry are housed, floors and perches shall be of a suitable design and material and not cause discomfort, distress or injury to the birds. They shall provide sufficient support, particularly for the forward facing claws of each foot; moreover, perches shall be of sufficient length to allow all birds to roost at the same time. Floors shall be kept sufficiently dry, and perches sufficiently clean.5. Poultry shall have access to good quality substrate for dust bathing and to prevent health problems, in particular foot, leg and breast lesions. However, this does not apply to poultry which are kept in those battery cages for which provision of litter has not yet been developed.6. Feeding and watering equipment shall be designed, constructed, placed, operated and maintained in such a way that: - it minimizes spillage or contamination of food and water; - all birds have sufficient access to it to avoid undue competition between individuals;- it does not cause or result in injury to birds; - it operates in all weather conditions; - the consumption of water and where necessary, feed, can be monitored. MANAGEMENT
Article 111. When considering the establishment or replacement of a flock, the choice of the strain of bird should be made with the aim of reducing welfare and health problems.2. Measures shall be taken to minimize aggression and stress, especially when new groups are formed, but also to ensure that stability of the group is maintained.3. The space allowance for birds should be calculated in relation to their demands on the whole environment, their age, sex, live weight, health and their needs to show certain behaviour, taking account of the size of the group. The stocking density shall be such that it does not lead to behavioural or other disorders or injuries. 4. Birds shall be kept in such a way that they can keep themselves clean.5. Routine or systematic use of drugs to compensate for poor hygienic conditions or management practices shall not be allowed.Article 12 1. The accommodation should be kept so that the ambient temperature, the air velocity, the relative humidity, the dust level and other atmospheric conditions do not adversely affect the health or welfare of the birds. The stocking density of groups shall, when they are set up, be evaluated in accordance with ventilation capacities of the buildings in order to maintain adequate temperatures to prevent heat stress, in particular during hot weather. Moreover, appropriate measures, such as cooling of buildings, shall be taken when the weather is exceptionally hot.2. The ventilation system, and facilities for storing and handling litter and manure shall be designed, maintained and managed to prevent the exposure of birds to gases such as ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide in concentrations which cause discomfort to the birds or which are detrimental to their health.3. Where the health and welfare of the animals depend on automatic or other mechanical systems of ventilation, an effective alarm system shall be installed and arrangements shall be made to ensure continued adequate ventilation in the event of power or equipment failure. 4. Where buildings need to be locked, arrangements shall be made to allow rapid entry in case of emergency.Article 13 As far as practicable, the sound level shall be minimized and constant or sudden noise shall be avoided. Ventilation fans, feeding machinery or other equipment shall be constructed, placed, operated and maintained in such a way that they cause the least possible noise, both directly inside the accommodation and indirectly through the structure of the accommodation itself. Article 14 1. All buildings shall have light levels sufficient to allow all birds to see one another and be seen clearly, to investigate their surroundings visually and to show normal levels of activity. It is therefore recommended that the minimum illumination level should be 20 lux at bird eye level, measured in 3 planes at right angles to each other. As far as practicable, natural light shall be provided. In this case, light apertures should be arranged in such a way that light is distributed evenly within the accommodation.2. After the first days of conditioning, the lighting regime shall be such as to prevent health and behavioural problems. Therefore, it shall follow a 24 hour rhythm and include a sufficient uninterrupted dark period, as a guideline approximately a third of the day, to allow the animals to rest and to avoid problems such as immunosuppression and eye abnormalities.3. A twilight period should be given in the dimming of lights sufficient to permit birds to settle without disturbance or injury.Article 15 1. All birds shall have appropriate access to adequate, nutritious, balanced and hygienic feed each day and to adequate supplies of water of suitable quality at all times. In the case of birds which have difficulty in feeding or drinking, appropriate measures shall be taken in accordance with Article 7 paragraph 3.Sudden changes in the type or quantity of feed and feeding procedures shall be avoided except in case of emergency. Methods of feeding and feed additives which cause injury or distress to the birds shall not be permitted. 2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply in the case of therapeutic or prophylactic treatment administered on the instructions of a veterinarian. Article 16 All automatic or other mechanical equipment upon which birds depend for their health and welfare must be thoroughly checked at least once daily. Where defects are discovered these must be rectified immediately, or, if this is impracticable, other appropriate steps taken to safeguard the health and welfare of the poultry until the defect can be rectified. Article 171. Birds should not be deprived of food or water before transport except in the case of transport to a slaughterhouse which is close to the point of production.2. Every effort should be made to coordinate collection times with production requirements at the slaughterhouse, in order to limit the time birds are held in containers before transport.3. Before de-populating houses, any hindrance from fixtures and fittings, especially sharp edges and protrusions, must be removed. The doors of battery cages shall be fully opening and as wide as possible to minimize injury to birds on handling.Care must be taken in catching birds in order to avoid panic and subsequent injury to and smothering of the birds, for example by reducing the intensity of the light or using a blue light. 4. Particular care shall be taken when moving birds within a house to ensure that no bird is injured by the equipment or handling process. Birds should preferably not be carried hanging head downwards and in any case they shall be held by both legs. They shall be held carefully to avoid damage to their legs and care shall be taken to avoid heads and wings hitting solid objects.Distances birds are carried shall be minimized, for example by bringing transport containers as close as possible to the birds.5. Hens kept in battery cages are particularly susceptible to bone breakage. They shall be removed from the cage one at a time and during removal the breast shall be supported.6. Transport containers with large openings should be used to avoid damage to the birds, and during the time the birds are held in the containers they shall be protected from bad weather and excessively hot or cold conditions.7. Efforts should be made to encourage the development and use of improved systems for handling large numbers of poultry, with a view to overcoming the welfare problems which currently arise. Article 18 1. Those parts of the accommodation with which the birds come into contact shall be thoroughly cleaned and, where appropriate, disinfected, every time the accommodation has been emptied and before new birds are brought in. While the accommodation is occupied by poultry, the interior surfaces and all equipment therein shall be kept satisfactorily clean. 2. Any dead bird must be removed promptly and hygienically in accordance with existing legislation.Article 19When there is a risk of attack by predators, measures shall be taken to minimize the risk in accordance with domestic law and other legal instruments for the protection of animals or for the conservation of threatened species.CHANGES OF GENOTYPE OR PHENOTYPE 041b061a72